The Rev William McMillan, Ph D, DD, FSA Scot, Dunfermline

William McMillan contributes background information about the publication in 1867 (two years after the founding of the Church Service Society) of what constituted the most important liturgical milestone in the Kirk in modern times.  The editorial committee was composed of the powerful triumvirate of G W Sprott,  John Tulloch and R H Story.   Euchologion gave to the Church orders of service for all major occasions and provided a level of liturgical scholarship and a language of public prayer which surpassed all earlier attempts by individuals.   Opponents regarded it as Anglican in tone (it would have been strange if there had been no sign of that), but other influences were at work, particularly the Liturgy of the Catholic Apostolic Church and the Mercersburg movement of Nevin and Schaff in the USA.   McMillan carefully assesses the contribution of the book in its various editions,  particularly that of 1905 with Sprott’s valuable introduction and annotations.

Reference: Volume 09 1936-37, p24

The Rev Professor L Zander, Institut de Théologie Orthodoxe, Paris

L Zander (a Russian Orthodox representative) gives an account of four one-day conferences which took place in Scotland in November, 1936, between representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Church of Scotland.  Names of familiar Scottish churchmen abound – Lang, Warr, Cromarty Smith, White Anderson and others.  The Russian Theological Academy in Paris sent Nicholas Zernov (later at Oxford) who spoke about the nature of Orthodox worship; Georges Florovsky, who gave an address on the Catholicity of the Church;  Irene Doroshevsky, who spoke about Russian youth in exile;  and Professor Zander, on the life and work of the
Church in exile.  The conference produced a deepening of understanding on both sides.

Reference: Volume 09 1936-37, p34
PDF icon A Scoto-Russian Church Conference1.98 MB

The Rev Professor Georges V Florovsky, Institut de Théologie Orthodoxe, Paris

Georges V. Florovsky defines the Church as the Body of Christ and, within it, the fullness of Christ through his Incarnation, imparting (in Augustine’s phrase) totus Christus.  The Eucharist nourished this understanding of the Church.  Thus it is a sacrament of Catholicity, as held by Cyprian.  In public prayer, the plural “we” is used, betokening the unity of the Church and that we are members of the one Body, in heaven and on earth.  The writer dwells on Orthodox eucharistic practice.  The actions express the oneness of the Church and are a true revelation of Christ and the final resurrection of all believers.  While there is a fundamental contradiction between the Church and the World, still the Christian pilgrim journeys on in a hope founded on Christ.

Reference: Volume 09 1936-37, p38

The Rev John Wilson Baird, MA, Aberdeen

John Wilson Baird’s short article draws attention to the prayers of Henry Scougal (1650-1678), Professor of Divinity at King’s College, Aberdeen, compiled for use in Aberdeen Cathedral.  They were reprinted by James Cooper in his  - now scarce - edition of Scougal’s Life of God in the Soul of Man.  They are reproduced in the Annual of the Church Service Society as a means of enabling students of Scottish liturgy to have easier access to them.  A short resumé of Scougal’s brief life follows, with comments on the nature of the worship of the time within the Church of Scotland.  A helpful footnote refers to G D Henderson’s Religious Life in 17th Century Scotland as providing background information on the period.  Thereafter, the prayers are fully set out under the heading “The Morning and Evening Service of the Cathedral Church of Aberdeen.”

Reference: Volume 09 1936-37, p47
PDF icon The Aberdeen Cathedral Liturgy4.67 MB

The Rev Andrew L Drummond, BD, Ph D, STM, Alva

Andrew L Drummond adopts a historical approach in surveying developments in Reformed worship in the US.  After a brief examination of the practice of the New England Puritans, he reviews the worship of 18th century Presbyterians, in New York and Pennsylvania (particularly the revision of the Directory of Public Worship).  He notes the liturgical emphasis of the American German Reformed Church of John Williamson Nevin and Philip Schaff, and the sacramental writings which emerged from the Mercersburg movement.  C W Baird’s Eutaxia (1855) and C W Shields’s Book of Common Prayer (1864) and its appended essay are seen as landmarks.  He touches on the period following the Civil War, the psychology of William James, the ‘Social Gospel’ of Rauschenbusch,  before concluding with a detailed and comprehensive assessment of the modern period and its hymnody.

Reference: Volume 09 1936-37, p57
PDF icon 1936-1937-57-74.pdf8.87 MB

W A Knowles

Hugh Ross Mackintosh, by W A Knowles

Reference: Volume 09 1936-37, p75
PDF icon In Memoriam548.33 KB

Several reviewers listed

An Outline of Christian Worship by William D Maxwell, OUP;  reviewed by J Harry Miller

A Book of Prayers for Schools,  SCM Press, reviewed by Millar Patrick 

The Daily Service:  Prayers and Hymns for Schools, ed G W Briggs (prayers), Percy Dearmer, R 
Vaughan Williams, Martin Shaw, G W Briggs (hymns), OUP;  reviewed by Millar Patrick

Christian Worship:  Studies in its History and Meaning,  ed. Nathaniel Micklem, OUP,
reviewed by Millar Patrick

The Reformation, the Mass, and the Priesthood by Ernest C Messenger, London, Longmans, Green & 
Co. reviewed by William McMillan

Scottish Church Architecture by J S Coltart;  SPCK, reviewed by William McMillan

The Mediaeval Styles of the English Parish Church by F E Howard, London, B T Batsford Ltd; 
reviewed by William McMillan

Worship by Evelyn Underhill, London, Nisbet & Co, reviewed by Thomas Marjoribanks

A History of Christian Worship by Oscar Hardman;  Hodder & Stoughton: reviewed by W Napier Bell

Prayers for Common Worship by James Ferguson; Allenson & Co. Ltd, reviewed by John Wilson Baird

Reference: Volume 09 1936-37
PDF icon Reviews7.42 MB

No Author Specified

A forthcoming lecture by J S Whale at the Society’s AGM
The 800th anniversary of St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall
The tercentenary of the Tron Kirk, Edinburgh
“Laud’s Liturgy” of 1637
A paper on The Choirmaster and his Choir
The distinction between stole and scarf
The proclamation of Banns of Marriage
Varying use of hands and arms when pronouncing the Benediction.

Reference: Volume 09 1936-37
PDF icon Notes and Comments7.42 MB

Illustrations in this volume

St Magnus Cathedral - from the North-West  -  Frontispiece
St Magnus Cathedral - The Triple Portal  -  facing page 17
St Magnus Cathedral - The Nave  -  facing page 20
St Magnus Cathedral - The Crossing  -  facing page 21
Christ’s Kirk at the Tron, Edinburgh  -  facing page 94

Reference: Volume 09 1936-37
PDF icon Illustrations1.58 MB

The Right Rev Richard Roberts, DD, Moderator of the United Church of Canada

Richard Roberts, of the newly United Church of Canada, describes retreats planned with the constituent parts of the Church [Presbyterian, Methodist and Congregationalist] and a proportion of immigrant eastern Europeans in mind.  These were a reaction against the decay of reverence (“God as primus inter pares”) and, he believes, the decline in the quality of preaching.  The quarry which led to the pattern for these retreats was the Abbé Poulain’s The Graces of Interior Prayer, adapted for “Protestant novices”.   He further describes the necessary adjustments required to introduce such a retreat to those - majority of participants - who were unfamiliar with this practice, and he outlines the original timetable.  The results, in varying circumstances, were moving.

Reference: Volume 08 1935-36, p3
PDF icon An Experiment in Retreats4.39 MB

The Rev W Neil Sutherland, MC, MA, Dalmeny

W Neil Sutherland reports on progress on a protracted work of restoration.  Principally, he dwells on the rebuilding of the tower, utilising Dalmeny stone earlier transported to Edinburgh for the construction of the old Calton jail, later demolished, and recycled for a higher use back once more
in Dalmeny.

Reference: Volume 08 1935-36, p11

The Rev D H Hislop, MA, Ardwell

D H  Hislop quotes Karl Adam: “The eternal light of revelation is differently reflected in the prism of each age with different angles of refraction.”  He takes seriously the insights of psychology in respect of (a) the people at worship and their interaction;  (b) method of worship; and (c) the Being to whom worship is offered.  He draws attention to the will to worship expressing itself in the means to worship;  yet not all worshippers are (and cannot be) equally involved.  Attitude, he suggests, helps to unite a disparate worshipping congregation.  He goes on to examine the subconscious and its meaning for worship, and sees worship as a liberating experience.  Lastly, and interestingly, he considers the psychological aspects of liturgy and forms of worship. 

Reference: Volume 08 1935-36, p17
PDF icon The Psychology of Worship6.26 MB

The Rev James T Soutter, MA, Whitekirk

James Tindall Soutter gives the geographical and topographical background of Whitekirk (or Hamer) and its church, with reference to the role of David I and the visit in 1435 of Aeneas Silvius, later Pope Pius II.   He then describes the restoration undertaken in modern times under the guidance of Sir Robert Lorimer.  Soutter himself,  before becoming parish minister, was a Scottish athlete of some note.  In the title of a self-published booklet of 1926 he called Whitekirk “the Lourdes of the Middle Ages”.  The site of Our Lady’s well, of healing propensities, has been

Reference: Volume 08 1935-36, p28
PDF icon The Church of St Mary, Whitekirk5.85 MB

The Rev J Wilson Baird, MA, Aberdeen

John Wilson Baird refers to Ethiopia as a “pathetic island in the sea of Paganism and Islam which surrounds it” (the Italo-Abyssinian war was then in progress).  Its Christian history, as he unfolds, renders it much less “pathetic”.   Its isolation accounted for many features peculiar to itself (e.g. circumcision, ritual dancing).  The Ethiopic Liturgy is distinctive, not least in the priest’s prayers of preparation, quoted at length.  Other prayers are examined, notably that leading to the consecration at the Eucharist, the offertory, the intercessions and the thanksgiving.

Reference: Volume 08 1935-36, p37
PDF icon The Ethiopic Liturgy5.07 MB

The Rev James W Runciman, BD, Udaipur, Rajputana

James W Runciman begins with a penetrating analysis of the passivity of the Hindu approach to worship and the ancient power of its metaphysic.  Both are quite inimical to the tenets of Christianity.  Judaism could be seen as a preparation for the Gospel;  Hinduism only as outright opposition with no common ground.   Christian missionary strategy is to demonstrate abundant life, e.g. by fostering education and health care.  Hinduism has no such outward expression:  it is “the great system of Pessimism”.   In Rajputana, 5000 scattered Christians are swamped by 12 million Hindus.  Indifference (a Hindu characteristic) affects a Christian community content to follow non-Indian denominational leads.  Thus there is no indigenous liturgy.  The writer points to the way ahead in which the needs of Indian Christians can be met.   In this respect he values, inter alia, the use of creeds and catechisms, even above sermons.  This is a revealing and thoughtful article which does not gloss over the difficulties facing the Church.

Reference: Volume 08 1935-36, p46
PDF icon Worship in Rajputana4.43 MB