The Rev Professor H R Mackintosh, D Phil, Th D, DD, Edinburgh

Professor H R  Mackintosh describes proposals for liturgical reform in the Lutheran Church made by Rudolph Otto on the basis of ideas explored in his “original and provocative book”.   The Idea of the Holy, noting that “Otto is not primarily keen to make Church services interesting or attractive”, but to foster inwardness and recollectedness.  Otto’s ideas for regular Sunday morning services on the basis of  developing the Christian year with the assigning of a theme to each Sunday after Trinity are then explored and a quotation from Otto covering two pages is given.  Finally his ideas for the Communion service, not closely related to regular Sunday morning worship, are described.

Reference: Volume 04 1931-32, p12

The Rev William McMillan, MA, Ph D, FSA Scot, St Leonard’s, Dunfermline

Dr William McMillan, from his wide-ranging knowledge of the highways and byways of Scottish church history and practice, sets out to demonstrate that the claim of Knox and his colleagues to have brought back “the reverend fact of the primitive and Apostolick Churche” was not altogether justified and that many features of post-apostolic and mediaeval vocabulary and procedure remained.

Reference: Volume 04 1931-32, p21

The Very Rev William Perry, DD, Dean of Edinburgh in the Scottish Episcopal Church

Dr William Perry, Dean of the Scottish Episcopal diocese of Edinburgh, writes to suggest some means of improvement in public intercession, and draws, inter alia, upon examples from early Christian worship, from the Eucharistic intercession of the Eastern Church, from the “Biddings” in  medieval Western practice and from the “English Prayer Book” of 1928.

Reference: Volume 04 1931-32, p35

The Rev William D Maxwell, BD, Ph D, St John’s, Kensington

Dr William Maxwell provides a translation (“literal rather than literary”) of two German texts which, as demonstrated in his previous article (Annual No.3, pp16-33), provide antecedents for the ScottishBook of Common Order.  They are I - ‘The Order of the Mass, as the Church at Strasburg now Celebrates it” (1525);  and II – “Concerning the Lord’s Supper or the Mass, and the Sermons.”

Reference: Volume 04 1931-32, p41
PDF icon Two Early Parent Liturgies6.79 MB

The Rev Robert M Adamson, DD, St John’s, Ardrossan

R M Adamson makes some suggestions to help ensure that everything is done “decently and in order” in the conduct of a variety of services.

Reference: Volume 04 1931-32, p57

The Rev John W Baird, MA, Holy Trinity Church, St Andrews

John Wilson Baird finds much to commend in three books on “the philosophy and practice of public worship” published in 1927.  They are The Public Worship of God, by J R P Sclater; Ideas in Corporate Worship, by R S Simpson; and Christian Worship and its Future.  The writers all had their roots in British Presbyterian Churches and all of the books had their origin as lectures to divinity students, two of them in the United States, a fact which the reviewer sees as providing a helpfully wider perspective.

Reference: Volume 04 1931-32, p62
PDF icon The Future of our Public Worship5.56 MB

The Rev Professor J H Baxter, BD, D Litt, St Mary’s College, St Andrews

J H  Baxter reviews The Worship of the Scottish Reformed Church, 1550-1638, by William McMillan as “a book to possess and enjoy, a veritable storehouse of curious and forgotten fact”; and John Knox’s Genevan Service Book, 1556, by William D Maxwell as “a volume of such detailed and exhaustive learning that his work will at once become, and will long remain, the standard and authoritative manual on the subject”.

Reference: Volume 04 1931-32, p74

Illustrations in this volume

St Andrew’s Church and Hospice, Jerusalem  -   Frontispiece
St Andrew’s Church, Jerusalem - Wrought-Iron Gates of Italian Workmanship  -  Facing page 4
St Andrew’s Church, Jerusalem - Looking Eastward  -  Facing page 5
St Andrew’s Church, Jerusalem - Looking Westward  -  Facing page 5

Reference: Volume 04 1931-32
PDF icon 1931-1932-illustrations.pdf863.53 KB

The Rev Oswald B Milligan, MC, BD, Corstorphine

The article marks the quin-centenary of this collegiate church, founded in 1429,  one of 41 such foundations with a constitution similar to that of a cathedral.  It was much altered in 1646, 'restored' by William Burn in 1828 and something of its original state recovered in 1905.  The author's description of the building includes reference to the services laid down for the college of clergy, an early example of Arabic numerals, and the lamp which guided pilgrims from the east.

Reference: Volume 03 1930-31, p3

The Rev G A Frank Knight, DD, FRSE, Glasgow

Traces of Eastern cults may be found on stone slabs, perhaps brought through oriental units in the Roman occupying army. Mithraism very nearly mastered the country. Christianity probably entered Britain through the Roman army and through trade. The British Church is often referred to in Latin writings. Its support of Athanasius of Alexandria against Arianism increased links with Egypt, and this latter connection was developed after the Romans left. Through it came the monastic system, by way of Gaul and Ireland. Its success was in part due to its compatibility with the clan system. The differences between this system and later Roman monastic systems are discussed, including details of Celtic monastic life and liturgy.

Reference: Volume 03 1930-31, p9

The Rev William D Maxwell, BD, Ph D, London

Maxwell develops the contention in the previous Annual that Calvin's main diet of worship does not have its source in the daily offices or choir offices but in the Eucharist.  After summarising the immediate history of the forms in the Scottish Book of Common Order at the Reformation, the writer offers a detailed account of the ancestry of the Book of Geneva from which it is derived, including the laying out in tabular form how the various sources were used.   He discusses Calvin's preference for weekly Communion, and the obstacles in his way.   Maxwell shows that the resulting form of service was a modification of the eucharistic order rather than the result of adopting another model.  This leads to the contention that the true Reformed tradition is the conduct of worship from the Table.  There is a final note on the “Reader's Service” in the early Reformed Church in Scotland.

Reference: Volume 03 1930-31, p16

The Rev J Arnott Hamilton, BD, Ph D, Newbattle

There is an increasing demand for a place of worship which is aesthetically satisfying.  Reformation principles plus the frugality of heritors led to simple buildings with unadorned interiors, although there are exceptions.   Floor plans and furnishings are discussed but, while simple, many buildings possessed a pleasing dignity and harmonised with their surroundings.  The Gothic and Romanesque styles, while appealing, are ill suited for hearing in.  The writer argues for a new Scottish style which involves an apse for the Table, the pulpit to one side, stained-glass and other features such as mosaic, 'opus sectile' panels, and paintings - not just to enhance the buildings but to educate and inspire.  These suggestions are supported by ample quotation of examples in the churches of Europe.

Reference: Volume 03 1930-31, p34

The Rev Alex Hetherwick, CBE, DD, Aberdeen, (formerly of Blantyre Mission, British Central Africa)

Native people have a great capacity for spiritual things.  Primitive worship consists in thanksgiving and propitiation, involving sacrifice and prayer; examples are given.   In Blantyre Church there is common prayer twice daily, based on the seven days of Creation (from Professor Cooper's Prayers for Family Worship), using the local language in the morning and English in the evening.  The orders are given in detail;  litanies and collects are used.   Communion is monthly. Baptism is approached through two and a half years instruction, six month's as a Hearer, and two years as a Catechumen.  The same pattern precedes the Confirmation of those baptised as infants. There is a natural reverence among the people.

Reference: Volume 03 1930-31, p42

The Rev Professor G T Thomson, BD, Aberdeen

The article addresses a perceived confusion among clergy about the meaning and value of Baptism, and a perfunctory approach to its celebration.  The doctrine of the Church is outlined. Revelation is from Person to person, issuing in regeneration and rebirth.  The sacraments take their place alongside general revelation and through the hearing of the Word, through which the same gift is offered, namely all the benefits obtained through Christ.  They are not absolutely indispensable but they are exceedingly valuable and never to be despised.  They are equal to the Word, the one unconditional means of grace, to those who receive them in faith.  They are not a representation, but are themselves the message.  They do not work ex opere operato but rely on faith, not to create the gift given but as a condition of the giving.   In this understanding we do not need to attribute any special potency to the symbols.   It is not merely a human way of making the divine promise vivid.  There is no authority for Infant Baptism in the New Testament but the Church has been guided by the Spirit towards this. God acts on every person the same way, even as a child.   Baptism guarantees the possibility of gaining faith in the future.  The role of the Church in bringing this consummation is discussed, and Baptism should take place in the face of the members.  In the Book of Common Order the so-called warrant for Infant Baptism should be removed.

Reference: Volume 03 1930-31, p48
PDF icon Baptism6.94 MB

W M Page Esq, SSC, Edinburgh

The different practices of Psalm singing, in Scotland, England and in the Roman Catholic Church are contrasted.  Gregorian chanting does not seem to have had popular appeal.  Anglican chant is discussed and its limitations in practice noted.  However, new publications have appeared with revised pointing.  In Scotland, prose versions of the Psalms, using the Authorised Version, have now been provided.  This is based on trials over two years in St. Giles' Cathedral.  Anglican chant has become familiar through broadcast services and gramophone records.  The writer argues for more widespread use of chanting, by choirs in place of the anthem, by congregations, in schools and in family worship.

Reference: Volume 03 1930-31, p57
PDF icon Chanting the Psalms3.82 MB